Such depositions may be taken in the course of the preliminary examination before the district justice or at any other time where a justice is of opinion that a prospective witness may be unable to attend to give evidence at the trial. However, except in cases where the deponent is dead, a deposition taken at a preliminary examination may not be read unless the accused consents and the trial judge has a residual discretion not to allow other depositions taken from persons still living to be read if he considers that to do so would not be in the interests of justice. Larkin 39 I.
Nearly 70 Verbal and nonverbal communication courtroom setting of the Gross National Product of the United States and other industrial nations can be traced to services Lovelockwhile up to three-quarters of those employed in some countries labor in service sector occupations Bateson Scholars and researchers have given significant attention to how the marketing of services differs from the marketing of goods Berry ; Sasser ; Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman ; etc.
One key characteristic that distinguishes services marketing is the simultaneity of production and consumption of the service product Bateson ; Berry ; Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman Services exist only in the time in which they are rendered and are living processes that cannot be disassembled Shostack and Kingman-Brundagep.
These various aspects of service delivery underscore the notion that services are complex, behavioral phenomena that can be quite difficult to understand or describe.
A review of the services marketing literature compiled by Fisk, Tansuhaj and Crosby reveals that less than fifteen percent of the total service literature to attempts to conceptualize the service experience.
In short, conceptual frameworks are needed Bowen ; Upah, Berry and Shostack ; Lovelock that demonstrate common characteristics of services, capture the processual nature of services, and address the "descriptive language problems" Shostack plaguing the services literature.
In an effort to satisfy this need for conceptual frameworks, the discussion that follows posits a general framework for services marketing based upon the metaphor of behavior as drama. The underpinnings of the drama metaphor are presented, along with several key concepts that it offers for the description of services marketing.
The service experience as theater is further developed and implications ensuing from the framework are given.
Finally, some research issues are examined and concluding comments are given. As such, it is particularly relevant as a means to describe service encounters. As a sociological school of thought born from the symbolic interactionist paradigm, the behavior as drama metaphor has generated wide attention.
Perinbanayagam,have contributed much to the development of the dramaturgical perspective. Underlying their observations is the tacit understanding that people are symbol users who interact with each other based upon the meanings they assign to the sundry elements present at any behavioral setting.
Dramaturgy, then, is greatly concerned with the broad issue of communication, both discursive speech and language and nondiscursive gestures, clothing, and other objectsand the connection between the two Brissett and Edgley Definitions of reality emerge as action occurs and those present strive to make sense of behavior situations.
Social reality, then, is not simply like drama, it is drama in so far as it a discourse involving articulation, definition and interaction Perinbanayagamp. The application of the drama metaphor to behavior is probably best represented in the scholarly efforts of Goffman,and most readily in his work, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.
Goffman describes social behavior as theatrical "performances" in which "actors" present themselves and their actions in such a manner as to fashion desired "impressions" before an "audience. Here critical aspects of actors' presentations are planned and practiced to arrive at a general coherence among the dramaturgical elements necessary to staging a believable performance.
Through it all, however, is the realization that performances are fragile processes that are easily undermined by the most minor of mishaps. The role of the audience in developing and maintaining a definition of an interactive situation cannot be ignored.
The audience's evolving expectations and continuous communication verbal and nonverbal of its responses to a performance as it unfolds provide the actors with needed information to guide their behavior toward a desired outcome.
While the meanings and interpretations that an audience assigns to a behavioral encounter may be partially a function of previous learning, their validation occurs during or following the interaction.
In other words, meanings are not absolute or static characteristics of the world, but are the result of a continuous social process Burke By understanding the different ways non-verbal information is communicated, trial counsel can optimize its impact in their own presentation and will know when to object to certain forms of non-verbal communication that could prejudice the client.
•Main Campus - Courses offered on the Main Campus in Parkersburg (includes online and hybrid). •Jackson County Center - Courses offered at the Jackson County Center in Ripley (includes online and hybrid).
•Online Courses - Courses offered % online. •Hybrid Courses - Combination on campus/online timberdesignmag.com meetings are required. •Express Courses - Courses offered over a . Advances in Consumer Research Volume 19, Pages THE SERVICE EXPERIENCE AS THEATER.
Stephen J. Grove, Clemson University. Raymond P. Fisk, University of Central Florida.
INTRODUCTION. The increased interest in services marketing during the past decade reflects a growing appreciation of the role services play in the economies of the United States and the world. Institute of Judicial Studies Handout 1 Albert Mehrabian Communication Studies.
1. Albert Mehrabian is currently Professor Emeritus of. Psychology, UCLA. THE MISSION. The mission of the Western Michigan University Thomas M. Cooley Law School is to prepare its graduates for entry into the legal profession through an integrated program with practical legal scholarship as its guiding principle and focus.
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