Messenger We demand and expect our transport systems to to get us where we want, when we want to be there, and as fast as possible. We are, however, human beings with human bodies. And as with any other built system, we have to ask whether our fast and efficient modes of travel are necessarily always good for us.
Passenger cars and trucks account for the bulk of vehicle-miles traveled in the US: Passenger car ownership in the US is now more than one car per 2 people per 1, residents in The energy distribution by transportation mode is illustrated in Fig.
Light duty vehicles cars, vans, light trucks currently account for more than half of all transportation energy consumption Figure III. Air travel growth has also slowed, from 4. Both rail and waterborne freight are projected to increase at modest annual rates 1.
The more energy-efficient electric transit and commuter rail, which use electrical power primarily generated at fossil-fuel burning plants, represent a very small fraction of the US transportation mileage 1, 2: Other projections 8 forecast that the global demand for petroleum will increase and perhaps double by from the present level of about 75 million barrels per day, primarily because of growth in automobile usage in S.
Korea, China, India, and other Asian nations. This growth rate will exacerbate urban congestion, air pollution and associated adverse impacts on economic productivity, human health and quality of life.
Transportation Energy Consumption, The fuel efficiency for a vehicle depends on many factors: The annual fleet energy efficiency average also depends on motor vehicle fleet make-up and age; the units in either energy per vehicle-mile, or per passenger mile show the advantage of high occupancy for transit bus and rail, vs.
Between and the fuel efficiency for new mid-size sedans doubled, and the PNGV program discussed below intends to triple the current level in the next decade. However, annual fleet average data show that between and the automobile fleet became less efficient Real gains in fuel efficiency were made for commercial air traveldue to both more seat-miles per gallon and to more passengers per seat, as a result of airline deregulation and of improved jet engines.
Unfortunately, in recent years and on a fleet-wide average basis, consumer preference for less energy efficient sports-utility vehicles, such as heavier vans and light trucks, has eroded gains made by improvements in the average fuel efficiency of automobiles.
Since the average vehicle life expectancy is about 12 years, energy savings as a result of turnover in the motor vehicle fleet and replacement of older less fuel-efficient cars with newer models will be slow. The federal speed limit was also repealed by Congress in as part of the National Highway System Act, allowing the states to set higher speed limits than the 55 mph, thus ensuring that the existing fleet will burn fuel less efficiently.
Furthermore, in spite of fuel intensity gains through improved engines and lower curb weight, it is unclear if the known fossil fuel reserves can accommodate projected growth in transportation sector oil consumption. Electric transit and commuter rail contribute pollution at the electricity source, through fuel burned by electric power plants.
In addition, the vast infrastructure network needed to produce and supply motor vehicles fuels - from trucks transporting pressurized Liquefied Petroleum Gas LPG and oil, to fugitive emissions of unburned fuel at the gas pump - further contributes to air pollution.
The increase in the number of vehicles and in the aggregate overwhelm the gains made in pollution control technology for tailpipe emissions and increases in fuel efficiency for motor vehicles.
Vehicle-miles traveled figures and trends correlate well with the toxic emissions of atmospheric pollutants regulated by the EPA, and with non-toxic greenhouse gases GHG like Carbon dioxide Figure III. Tailpipe emissions are the major source of air pollution, and of precursors of ozone and acid rain: Sulphur dioxide vehicle emissions produce acid aerosols, which are eye and respiratory irritants; and, as acid rain, pollute the groundwater.
In addition, soot and aerosol particles from unburned fuel cause respiratory problems. Carbon monoxide is poisonous and causes respiratory problems, while volatile organics are both toxic and carcinogenic.
Although carbon dioxide is non-toxic and is a byproduct of efficient and complete fuel burning, there are international and US efforts to limit its production rate and accumulation in the atmosphere.To progress beyond the R&D phase to commercialization of new transportation energy technologies, government assistance might economically stimulate the private sector in making the transition to new transportation fuels (e.g., hydrogen), by developing and demonstrating the safety of the infrastructure for refueling.
Modern Transportation was founded on the concept of creative solutions Since Modern Transportation has served numerous material and chemical providers, energy producers and industrial manufacturers.
The use of fossil fuels in transportation contributes almost 30 percent of all US global warming emissions, rivalling—and likely to surpass—the power sector.
Air pollution Burning fossil fuels emits a number of air pollutants that are harmful to both the environment and public health. How Modern Transport Fuels Effect our Environment Why is looking at alternate fuels important?
There are several reasons, but the most important reason is that air pollution kills in the neighborhood of 3 million people every year and air pollution affects more than 1 billion people in a negative way.
The transportation systems around which the modern world has been built are on the verge of a significant transformation. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are making driving and traffic management better and safer for everyone.
Transportation typifies the FutureStructure framework. S&T must help make economic growth compatible with sustainability, and one current challenge is to develop sources of alternative energy for transportation. The downside of fossil fuels.
In the 20th century, many advanced countries relied on fossil fuels such as coal and oil for generating energy.
These energy resources have brought great .