Are the two standards still very different?
This volume covers the financial instruments of fixed income securities and interest rate derivatives viz. As in the first volume, this book provides an exhaustive treatment of accounting, presentation and disclosure aspects of any entity dealing with such financial instruments.
Since the break out of a severe financial crisis starting in the year that virtually crippled the world economy, the regulatory authorities including the accounting standard setters have been on their toes and, thanks to their tireless efforts, a substantial addition to the knowledge of accounting has been made along with a thorough overhaul of the accounting standards relating to financial instruments.
The good news is that the seat of accounting standard setting authorities on both sides of the Atlantic are now speaking in a singular voice despite some lag in the implementation timeline. Never in the past have we seen such rapid succession of accounting standards issued on financial instruments continuously revised and fine-tuned, based on feedback received from the accounting fraternity and other users of financial statements across the globe.
Nevertheless, it is a good development and this book captures the changes that have already been announced irrespective of the actual date of implementation, and other key proposals in the exposure draft stage are also considered at the appropriate places. This book assumes that the reader already has basic accounting knowledge.
Those who are entirely new to the field of accounting should refer to some basic accounting books before attempting to this one. It might be useful to have some basic orientation on accounting for investments, especially plain derivatives on equity instruments like equity futures and equity options to understand better the concepts given in this volume.
However, it is not a must and the readers can easily grasp the essentials as this volume is meant to be self-sufficient in dealing with basic accounting concepts in so far as it relates to the particular financial instrument under review.
The entire trade life cycle of each financial instrument is covered in detail from the accounting perspective.
For each illustration, the accounting journal entries, general ledger accounts, trail balances, income statements and balance sheets are presented to give a complete understanding of the accounting treatment. Also for all calculated numbers the details of such calculations are given.
The presentation and disclosure requirements for these financial instruments are given separately in an exclusive chapter and are not given as part of each illustration and solution to the worked out problems in this book.
While an overview of the trade life cycle for each financial instrument is given, the readers are advised to refer other resources for a detailed treatment on the trade life cycle from the front office and middle office perspective.
The trade life cycle in so far as it relates to the back office viz. For each financial instrument, the relevant accounting standards that are applicable are given and wherever necessary a comparison showing the similarities and differences between the US GAAP and IFRS is also provided.
Fixed Income Securities — Theory — This chapter gives some basics of fixed income securities, basics of bond markets, types of issues and special characteristics, bond coupons, bond maturity, bond pricing, yield measures, duration and certain types of bonds like municipal bonds, corporate bonds, risks of investment in bonds and so on.
Fixed Income Securities — Fair value through profit or loss — This chapter covers the accounting for fixed income securities held for trading purposes.
After explaining the meaning and definition of fixed income securities, an overview of the categories of financial instruments is given along with the recent changes contemplated by the accounting standard IFRS 9. The explanation of fair value through profit or loss is given with the circumstances in which the designation at fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition is allowed.
Fair value concepts and the measurement hierarchy of fair value as per the accounting standard are explained here. The trade life cycle for fixed income securities held as trading securities is given with the accounting entries to be passed at various stages. Illustrations cover fixed income securities in the functional currency of USD held for trading purposes.
Distinctions between FX revaluation and FX translation are given in great detail along with the explanation of functional currency, foreign currency and presentation currency and the requirements of accounting standards in this regard.
Fixed Income Securities — Available-for-sale — This chapter covers the accounting for bonds that are held as available for sale. Amendments made through IFRS 9 that impacts this category is explained.
FX translation on available-for-sale securities calls for some special treatment, which is explained in this chapter. The trade life cycle for bonds classified as available for sale securities is given with the accounting entries to be passed at various stages.
One illustration covers equity shares in the functional currency of USD held as available for sale; one more illustration is given in a foreign currency with FX translation into the functional currency of USD.
Fixed Income Securities — Held-to-maturity — This chapter covers the accounting for bonds that are classified as held-to-maturity. Meaning of securities classified as held-to-maturity is discussed.
Tainting rules along with exceptions are given. However, tainting rules are dispensed with in light of the recent changes made to this category.WisdomTree is an ETF sponsor and index developer that uses a rules-based methodology to select and weight companies.
Learn more about specialized ETFs here. Comparison between U.S. GAAP and IFRS Accounting Standards Board (the Board) to maintain their commitment to collaboration in support of the some of the major similarities and differences between IFRS Standards and U.S.
GAAP. More emphasis is placed on recognition, measurement, and presentation guidelines, and . A Comparison of U.S. GAAP and IFRS A Securities and Exchange Commission Staff Paper November 16, analyzed the remaining U.S.
GAAP Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topics and their We then supplement those high-level observations with more specific examples of differences between U.S.
GAAP and IFRS. On the other hand Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) is the assemblage of rules, conventions, and procedures, that explains the accepted accounting practice.
There is only a few difference between IFRS and GAAP, which are discussed in this article except in detail.
The Evolution of The Concept of Auditing - Introduction Audit is a word derived from the word Auditus, from Latin, which means “a hearing”, past participle of audire “hear”.
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), is a set of standards for accounting that are developed by an independent nonprofit organization known as the International Accounting Standards Board whereas the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), are a set of principles, criteria, and processes in accounting .