Compare and contrast two models of

We notice difference between things, not absolute measures. The way we judge pretty much anything is in comparison with something else.

Compare and contrast two models of

Introduction A key element for a great Tablet has always been a truly innovative and top performing display, and the best leading edge Tablets have always flaunted their beautiful high tech displays. Apple iPads and iPhones were up until recently at the leading edge of mobile displays: Steve Jobs and Apple also made display-quality a central theme for their product marketing.

In March the iPad 3 got its first Retina display, plus a full percent sRGB Color Gamut, which significantly improved color saturation and color accuracy. Up until that time almost all LCD Tablets and Smartphones had percent Color Gamuts, which produced washed out, under saturated and distorted colors, so that red tomatoes, fire trucks, and Coke cans looked a bit orange rather than deep red, for example.

But then iPad display innovation slowed almost to a crawl: In November the original iPad Air display was essentially unchanged and identical in performance to the iPad 4 introduced in November While Apple display innovation slowed, many other manufacturers just steadily pushed ahead to take the lead.

So recently Amazon, Google, Microsoft and Samsung have been launching Tablets with the best and most innovative displays, as documented in our Display Technology Shoot-Out article series and discussed below.

Originally spurned, then introduced in haste inthe original iPad mini was a smaller version of the older iPad 2 with a x resolution display and a reduced 62 percent Color Gamut, when the full size iPads already had a x Retina display with a percent Color Gamut.

In the mini was given a Retina display, but remained with a reduced 62 percent Color Gamut — the only current iPad or iPhone without a full Color Gamut.

But there are now over two years of catching up to do, and there are many display performance issues to consider. We take display quality very seriously and provide in-depth objective analysis based on detailed laboratory tests and measurements and extensive viewing tests with both test patterns, test images and test photos.

To see how far mobile displays have progressed in just four years see our Smartphone Display Shoot-Outand for a real history lesson see our original Smartphone Display Shoot-Out.

Results Highlights In this Results section we provide Highlights of the comprehensive DisplayMate Lab tests and measurements and extensive visual comparisons using test photos, test images, and test patterns that are covered in the advanced sections.

You can also skip these Highlights and go directly to the iPad Conclusions. Reducing Screen Reflections A major innovation for the iPad Air 2 that is not fully appreciated is an anti-reflection coating on the cover glass that reduces ambient light reflections by about 3: While everyone has been in situations where it is difficult or even impossible to see the screen in very bright ambient lighting, where this obviously helps, it turns out that even in moderate indoor lighting the image contrast and colors are being noticeably washed out from reflections as well.

For example, the Color Gamut is typically reduced by 20 percent even at only lux indoor lighting. To visually compare the difference for yourself, hold two Tablets or Smartphones side-by-side and turn off the displays so you just see the reflections.

The iPad Air 2 is dramatically darker than any other existing Tablet or Smartphone. Those reflections are still there when you turn them on, and the brighter the ambient light the brighter the reflections. The iPad Air 2 is the first iPad with an optically bonded cover glass — all previous iPad models had high reflectance air gaps under the cover glass — but they are simply catching up because almost all other leading Tablets have had a bonded cover glass without an air gap for years.

One minor but noticeable issue is that the screen Reflectance spectrum is heavily weighted towards blue, which is may be noticeable for dark images or in bright ambient light. See the Spectrum Figure and Screen Reflections section for measurements and details.

Compare and contrast two models of

Similarly, the display on the iPad mini 3 is essentially unchanged and identical in performance to the iPad mini Retina Display introduced in We measured a slightly large percent Color Gamut for the iPad Air 2 and a rather small 62 percent Color Gamut for the iPad mini 3, both almost identical with previous iPad models.

See this Figure for the measured Color Gamuts. In order to produce high Absolute Color Accuracy a display also needs an accurate pure logarithmic power-law Intensity Scale, and an accurate White Point. The new iPads both have very accurate Intensity Scales with Gammas very close to the 2.

On the other hand, for the iPad mini 3, the much smaller 62 percent Color Gamut resulted in a much higher error of 6. Screen Brightness and Performance in High Ambient Lighting Mobile displays are often used under relatively bright ambient light, which washes out the image colors and contrast, reducing picture quality and making it harder to view or read the screen.

To be usable in high ambient light a display needs a dual combination of high screen Brightness and low screen Reflectance — the iPad Air 2 has both. The screen Reflectance for the iPad Air 2 is 2.

Our Contrast Rating for High Ambient Light quantitatively measures screen visibility under bright Ambient Light — the higher the better. As a result of its high Brightness and very low Reflectance, the iPad Air 2 has a Contrast Rating for High Ambient Light ofthe highest that we have ever measured.

On the other hand, the iPad mini 3 lacks the anti-reflection coating and has an air gap beneath the cover glass, which results in a moderately high screen Reflectance of 6.

Usage note

Other LCD Tablets have much higher display power efficiency. See the Display Power section for measurements and details.

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Viewing Angle Performance While Tablets are primarily single viewer devices, the variation in display performance with viewing angle is still very important because single viewers frequently hold the display at a variety of viewing angles.

The angle is often up to 30 degrees, more if it is resting on a table or desk. The iPads all have IPS LCD displays, so we expected them to show very small color shifts with Viewing Angle, and our lab measurements confirmed their excellent Viewing Angle performance, with no visually noticeable color shifts.

However, all LCDs, do have a strong decrease in Brightness Luminance with Viewing Angle, and the iPads all showed as expected about a 60 percent decrease in Brightness at a modest 30 degree viewing angle. Note that the iPads do not perform as well with viewing angle as the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, which have higher performance Dual Domain pixels and Improved Polarizers.Compare and Contrast Characters in Beowulf and The Niebelungenlied - The hero of Beowulf, one of the oldest written Germanic epics, is a leader of the Geats and a hero unlike all others before him.

Examples of Writing CONTRAST and ESTIMATE Statements Introduction EXAMPLE 1: A Two-Factor Model with Interaction Computing the Cell Means Using the ESTIMATE Statement. Compare resolution, size, weight, performance, battery life, and storage of iPad Pro, iPad, and iPad mini models. Compare and contrast two developmental theories of intelligence Intelligence is a complex psychological construct and promotes fierce debate amongst academics.

Many experts maintain that intelligence is the most important aspect of individual differences, whereas other doubt its value as a concept. iPad Air 2 and iPad mini 3 Conclusions: One Major Innovation and One Major Disappointment The primary goal of this Display Technology Shoot-Out article series has always been to point out which manufactures and display technologies are leading and advancing the state-of-the-art of displays by performing comprehensive and objective Lab tests and measurements together with in-depth analysis.

iPad Air 2 and iPad mini 3 Conclusions: One Major Innovation and One Major Disappointment The primary goal of this Display Technology Shoot-Out article series has always been to point out which manufactures and display technologies are leading and advancing the state-of-the-art of displays by performing comprehensive and objective Lab tests and measurements together with in-depth analysis.

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