Northeast[ edit ] In during the reign of the Kangxi Emperorthe Qing government decreed a prohibition of non- Eight Banner people getting into Northeast China Manchuria of their origin.
Questions of Periodization Nature and causes of changes The fall of classical empires led to decentralization of government in China and in Europe leading up to the period of C. The collapse of the Han dynasty in China opened the door to the spread and appeal of Buddhism into China, since the Confucian authority was no longer centralized.
In the Western Roman Empire, the fall of the west left a power vacuum that set the stage for the rise of fragmented regional kingdoms. In India, the tradition of weak centralized power coupled with the Hindu caste system contributed to the social stability after the fall of the Gupta empire.
The Indian Ocean trade route becomes more prosperous as a result of the collapse of classical empires in Rome and China, which had helped secure the overland trade routes. The rapid growth of Islam after shaped events and societies in parts of Africa, Europe and Southwest Asia. They were based in Damascus and established a hereditary monarchy.
The set up a bureaucratic structure that used local administrators.
Cultures were tolerated as long as they obeyed the rules of the caliphate, and payed a special tax and did not revolt. Arabic was the language used for trade and government.
Abbasid Caliphate - They moved the capital to Baghdad, which was the second largest city in the world then. The size made it difficult to control, and their empire was weakened due to the heavy use of slaves, known as Mamluks.
The Mamluks served in the army and eventually weakened the Abbasid rule. By the mid 9th century, the Abbasid Caliphate had been broken into smaller states, but Islam was the cultural continuity.
Areas under Muslim control were known as "Dar al-Islam". Muslim merchants spread improved irrigation in the region, which led to increases in food production and population.
Cities flourished and manufactured pottery, fabrics and rugs. Paper was introduced from China, and they set up paper mills. Mosques, hospitals, schools and orphanages were set up throughout the empire, which allowed for the spread of intellectual ideas such as algebra, Greek learning, and latitude and longitude.
Universities were also established, such as those in Toledo, Cordoba, and Granada. Women - In early Islamic society, Islam appealed to women because they had equal status in the eyes of God. Women could keep their dowries as wives and female infanticide was prohibited. Byzantine Empire 4th century - C.
Emperor Justinian attempted to reconquer the western portion, but failed. He did succeed at codifying Roman laws Justinian's Code.
He controlled religious and political life and replaced Latin with Greek as the official language. The Byzantine Empire was a strong centralized hereditary monarchy. It had an effective military and a bureaucracy the answered to the emperor. The empire was administered by dividing it into themes - military districts - controlled by generals.
The Emperor was considered the head of the church and appointed the patriarch. This concept was called caesaropapism. Its central location on the Mediterranean Sea allowed trade to flourish, especially in the capital of Constantinople.
Silk worms were smuggled out of China, which allowed the Byzantines to develop a silk industry, while artisans produced glassware, linen, jewelry, gold and silver.
Socially, people could move up through military service, but this was rare. Their growth was due largely to the increase in trade along the Indian Ocean Basin.
Bantu settlers on the coast and Arab merchants who traded along the east African coast interacted to create city-states such as Mogadishu, Sofala, and Kilwa.
Swahili is a language that blends Bantu and Arabic. Merchants traded gold, slaves and ivory for pottery, glassware, and textiles from Persia, India and China.
City-states were governed by kings, who controlled the trade, as well as the taxes. Wealthy merchants often converted to Islam, but did not give up their own religions or traditions.
Tang Dynasty - C. The Sui dynasty - C.
The Tang was focused on scholars than soldiers, but did expand to TIbet and Korea. It completed the Grand Canal, which led to increase in trade within China.Nov 07, · China’s Technology Ambitions Could Upset the Global Trade Order a new generation of deals that could give China a firmer grip on the technology of tomorrow.
ways that elude American and. China: The Ming () and the Qing () and canals facilitate the development of internal trade in China. The mainland of China forms a natural unit almost cut off by mountains and desert from the Eurasian land mass to the west and south.
China thus never feels pressure to develop labor-saving technologies or to engage in. The Shang Dynasty was the first true civilization of China.
They centralized government, built strong cities, and began the Chinese culture. Again, the Huang He River was essential in centralizing government.
Patterns and effects of interactions: Trade, war, diplomacy, and technology, and GUNPOWDER. The movement of people including the Bantus, Turks, Mongols, and Vikings greatly altered the world. examples of the high art and culture achieved by .
It was a golden age of Chinese civilization and considered to be the most prosperous period of China with significant developments in culture, art, literature, particularly poetry, and technology. Buddhism became the predominant religion for the common people. The ancient Silk Road contributed greatly to the cultural exchange between China and the West.
From the second century BC to the fifteenth century AD, splendid civilizations among China, India, Greece, Persia and Rome were exchanged along this famous trade route, making the route a great "Cultural Bridge" between Asia and Europe.