One reason for these different conclusions lies in their opposing understanding of human nature, with, in the most crude sense, Hobbes seeing man as a creature of desire and Locke as one of reason.
Search The Transition from State of Nature to Civil Society The study of the relationship between states and citizens is one of the fundamental concerns of political science. States want a maximum of authority and citizens want a maximum of liberty.
But let me ask you a question: Would you likely to submit yourself easily to any kind of authority? Most people would say no. Abusing of authority can make you hateful. Thereby, some sort of compromise has to be made between a state and its citizens.
A reasonable power should be made available to the state, and a reasonable liberty should be made available to citizens.
A state and its citizens are not opposed to each other; they are made to live together. Philosophers such as Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau gave free reign to their passion: The state of nature is a term used in contract social theories to describe the hypothetical condition that preceded civil society and government.
Social contract theory implies that people give up sovereignty to a government in order to maintain social order through the role of Law.
Did these political philosophers share the same approach to power? Did they share the same intentions by legitimating the authority of governments over citizens? The difficulty in social contract theories is the transition from state of nature to civil society.
This transition represents the true essence of the relationship between governments and citizens. How individuals are going to accept this use of power over them?
How the transition from state of nature to civil society would be then possible?
A transition is by definition a movement from one state, or position to another. Transitions involve changes, but let me ask you a question again: Do you find change difficult? The answer would be most probably yes. Change is unknown; we cannot easily discern the outcomes. Change is challenging and uncertain.
We are going to analyze the different transitions from state of nature to civil society for Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau.
How the transition from State of Nature to civil society is represented for these different political philosophers?
What legitimates the authority of governments over citizens? What is the purpose of creating laws? All these questions will be answered in this paper within three different parts. The first part will be about Hobbes and its mechanism, the second one will be about Locke, and finally the last one will be about Rousseau.
Hobbes analyzed human behaviors to find the ultimate solution to convince people to accept the authority of governments over them. The ability of analyzing is a very powerful tool towards manipulating people.
Hobbes paints a bleak picture of the State of Nature. He describes it as being a state in which: Men struggle against each other to save their lives and possessions.
The State of Nature is described as being chaotic, and consumed by fear. In his theory of social contract, Hobbes seems to voluntarily create a feeling of confusion.Hobbes’s transition from State of Nature to civil society is very difficult to understand.
Hobbes analyzed human behaviors to find the ultimate solution to convince people to accept the authority of governments over them.
The ability of analyzing is a very powerful tool towards manipulating people. Academy of Social Sciences ASS The United Kingdom Association of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences formed in gave rise to the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences incorporated , which became the Academy of Social Sciences on ASS Commission on the Social Sciences Notes from the meeting on by Ron Johnston.
The social contract theory has three main stages of progression, namely- state of nature, contract or covenant and civil society. These three stages provide the basic differences between the theories of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Natural Law and Natural Rights. Perhaps the most central concept in Locke’s political philosophy is his theory of natural law and natural rights.
Therefore, to Hobbes, the transition from State of Nature to civil society is based on the notion of motion. People are allowed to take actions in order to satisfy their needs if and only if they accept to live under the authority of a government. 1. Major Political Writings. Hobbes wrote several versions of his political philosophy, including The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic (also under the titles Human Nature and De Corpore Politico) published in , De Cive () published in English as Philosophical Rudiments Concerning Government and Society in , the English Leviathan published in , and its Latin revision in .